Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish that consists of fermented, salted vegetables. It can contain a variety of ingredients but most often includes cabbage and seasonings such as sugar, salt, onions, garlic, ginger, and chili peppers. Kimchi can provide some potential health benefits, but the fermentation process it undergoes also means that it may come with some risks.
Before advances in agriculture and technology, it was difficult to store food for long periods of time without spoilage. Therefore, people developed food preservation methods to keep food for longer.
Traditionally, during the fermentation process of kimchi — which can take up to 1 month — people place kimchi in special jars that they partially or totally store underground.
This article discusses the possible benefits and risks of kimchi and provides tips on how people can prepare it.
The nutritional content of kimchi can vary due to it having more than 200 different variations. However, it is generally low in calories and rich in nutrients.
Kimchi is also a
- 23 calories
- 1 g of protein
- under 1 g of fat
- 4 g of carbohydrates
- 2 g of fiber
- 2 g of sugar
The abundance of minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants present in kimchi can provide important health benefits. For example, some evidence suggests that kimchi may help promote good health and may help prevent or control certain conditions.
Some health benefits of kimchi may include the following.
The method of producing fermented foods such as kimchi involves a
These “good bacteria” are also present in yogurt, and people often refer to them as probiotics. Eating fermented foods containing probiotics can help maintain healthy gut flora and reduce the negative symptoms of digestion-related conditions.
Inflammation is one
Kimchi may also help lower cholesterol. In one
In addition to reducing inflammation, some research suggests that eating fermented foods such as kimchi can also help remodel the gut microbiome and alter and strengthen the immune system.
This is consistent with a
Kimchi is not only low in calories but may also help with weight loss.
A 12-week randomized clinical trial in 114 adults with obesity suggests that Lactobacillus sakei derived from kimchi might help reduce body fat mass and waist circumference.
Similarly, an 8-week mouse study indicates that kimchi may exhibit anti-obesity activity.
Although kimchi may exhibit many potential health benefits, it still contains live bacteria. The bacteria that people use to ferment kimchi are safe to consume. However, people must prepare and store kimchi correctly, or there may be a risk of
Foodborne pathogens are not typically present in fermented foods. This is because lactic acid typically forms during fermentation, which can help control any harmful pathogens that may be present. However, like most foods, kimchi is still vulnerable to these harmful microorganisms.
In the past 10 years, researchers have linked kimchi to outbreaks of both
Another consideration is the high sodium content in kimchi. People at risk of high blood pressure might have concerns about the high salt content of this food. However, one 2014 study suggests that eating kimchi does not increase blood pressure.
Although people can purchase kimchi at many grocery stores and Korean markets, they may also consider preparing it at home.
It can be safe to make kimchi at home, but people must follow proper sanitation practices to prevent contamination by spoilage or harmful bacteria. This will involve proper hand-washing, using clean equipment, and cleaning surfaces throughout all preparation steps.
To safely prepare kimchi at home:
- Prepare the cabbage:
- Rinse the cabbage and discard any spoiled or damaged spots.
- Cut the cabbage into quarters and remove the core from each.
- Then, chop these quarters into 2-inch (in) pieces.
- Salt the cabbage:
- Prepare a saltwater solution, comprising half a cup of salt and 1 gallon of cold water, in a large mixing bowl.
- Briefly dip the cabbage in the saltwater solution, then discard the salt water.
- Place the cabbage in a bowl. Sprinkle over some salt, then massage it into the cabbage.
- Allow the cabbage to sit at room temperature for 3–6 hours.
- Rinse the cabbage three to four times with cold water, then place it in a colander for 30 minutes.
- Prepare the seasonings:
- Add sweet rice flour to half a cup water in a saucepan. Bring to a boil and set aside to cool.
- Clean, peel, and finely mince the garlic and ginger. Mix with the cooled sweet rice flour paste and add Korean red pepper powder.
- Clean and peel the radish, green onions, and Asian pear. Slice into matchsticks about 1 in in length.
- Using clean hands, mix the seasoning paste and vegetables together in a large mixing bowl.
- Then, mix in fish sauce to create a veggie paste.
- Combine the cabbage with the spicy veggie paste, rub together, and mix thoroughly.
- Pack the container:
- Pack the kimchi tightly into the container, minimizing air exposure and encouraging brine formation.
- Fill the container about two-thirds full with kimchi and cover tightly.
- If using jars, seal them fingertip tight. If using bags, squeeze out any excess air.
- Place the kimchi in the refrigerator so that it ferments slowly over 3–4 days. This may be preferable, especially during hot weather.
- Alternatively, place the sealed container in a well-ventilated location with a relatively constant room temperature.
- Ferment for only 1–2 days at room temperature, tasting it daily until it reaches one’s preferred taste and desired texture.
- People can now store the kimchi in the refrigerator. It is important to cover it tightly to minimize air exposure. Kimchi may become more sour and spoil over time.
- Discard the kimchi if there are any signs of mold or if it develops a strong, foul odor.
Kimchi is a versatile dish that people can add to many meals. People can eat it as a side dish, use it as an ingredient in other meals, or eat it on its own.
Although individuals can cook kimchi, keep in mind that heating any fermented foods can start to kill off the healthy probiotics. So, to retain the health benefits, it is best to add kimchi in at the end of the cooking process.
Some ways that people can enjoy kimchi include:
- served on top of potato pancakes
- used as a filling in an omelet
- stirred into homemade fried rice
- used inside burritos and Korean-style tacos
- added to noodle dishes such as ramen, udon, and soba
- used to flavor soup broth
Kimchi is a Korean food that typically consists of fermented cabbage and various seasonings. It is an easy addition to most meals. Due to the probiotics, vitamins, and minerals it contains, it may provide some health benefits.
However, if a person incorrectly prepares or stores kimchi, it may contain harmful bacteria that can make people ill. Although people can make kimchi at home, it is often readily available in many grocery stores.